Brain aneurysm


Most brain aneurysms only cause noticeable symptoms if they burst (rupture). Because a brain aneurysms commonly occur on the larger arteries on the outside of the brain in the membrane that cover the brain (arachnoid mater), when they rupture this is called a subarachnoid heammorage, SAH. Symptoms of SAH are:

Haemorrhagic stroke

Haemorrhagic strokes are described by their location in the brain. One option is a bleed on the surface of the brain, in the membrane (or meninges) that cover the brain. For example: a subarachnoid haemorrhage is a bleed that happens between the layer closest to the brain and the second layer. The other option occurs when an artery inside the brain burst and bleeds into the brain. 


The most common symptoms during a haemorrhagic stroke may include

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)


After a head injury, someone can become unconscious. It is also possible that a person doesn't remember moments from before the impact. This is called post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Besides unconsciousness and PTA, the following symptoms may occur:

Spinal surgery achondroplasia


Compression on the nervous tissue occurs most frequently in the lower back, concerning the cauda equina. This leads to pain in the legs upon walking and standing. This is called neurogenic claudication. This phenomenon also occurs in non-achondroplasts, because this is a normal phenomenon that occurs upon ageing. However, in achondroplasts it occurs more often due to the deviating anatomy.



Symptoms of syringomyelia are caused by increased pressure on the spinal cord and pinched nerves. This may cause the following symptoms:

  • Pain in arms and/or legs
  • Sensory problems in arms, legs and/or parts of the torso
  • Weakness in arms and/or legs
  • Coordination problems




Mild scoliosis does not typically cause problems, but in severe cases when the chest is twisted it can affect the organs in the chest and abdomen. The severity and the symptoms of the scoliosis can differ, but symptoms may include:

  • Back pain
  • Limited spine mobility
  • Problems breathing
  • Fatigue


Spinal trauma


When the spine and the surrounding structures are damaged, the following symptoms may occur (depending on the location of the impact):

  • Pain in the spine
  • Pain or tingling in arms and/or legs
  • Sensory loss in arms, legs and/or abdominal region
  • Weakness in arms and/or legs


It's not always necessary to perform surgery for the spine to recover. When surgery is necessary, usually fusion and internal fixation is needed to stabilise the spine.

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST)

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur in every nerve of the body. The arms and legs are most often affected. In the head region the auditory nerve is most often affected, this is called a vestibular schwannoma. To learn more about this specific nerve tumor, go to the page about vestibular schwannoma on this website, you find the link at the bottom of this page. Another relative frequent PNST are neurofibromas. Neurofibromas occur in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1. 


Nerve injuries

Brachial Plexus

A rare nerve injury is the brachial plexus injury. For more information about this specific injury you can check the page 'Brachial Plexus Injury' on this website. 


There's four degrees in which a nerve can be damaged: